The ISU Judging System or International Judging System (IJS) has been applied to all figure skating competitions since 2004/2005 season. (For Grand Prix, 2003/2004 season) For the details, refer to each communication.
Major changes in Single Skating
1. Of all the triple or quadruple jumps, only two (2) can be repeated and these repetitions must be in jump combination or jump sequence. If a third repeated jump executed in a combination or a sequence, the entire combination or sequence will be treated as an additional element and therefore not considered.
(cf. 2004/2005 season : Only the repeated jump was treated as an additional element and the points for the other jumps were guaranteed.)
2. The position of a “Biellmann Spin” can only be taken and considered as a feature to increase the Level after having successfully rotated these required 8 revolutions in the layback-position (backward or sideways).
3. Changes in the base values and GOE (grade of execution) factors
1) All spin, level 1&2 in Step/Spiral sequence : positive 0.5 / negative 0.3
2) Level 3 in Step/Spiral sequence : positive 0.5 / negative 0.7
3) Level 4 in Step/Spiral sequence : positive 1.0 / negative 0.7
1. Allow in Junior Ladies Short Programs a Jump Combination consisting of two double jumps or one double and one triple jump or two triple jumps.
2. In Singles Free Skating if a Triple or Quadruple Jump is performed twice as a Solo Jump, the second execution will be counted as a Jump Sequence with only one jump included. (80% of base value for the jump sequence)
(cf. Until 2005/2006 season : The second solo jump was counted as a Jump combination (Jump + COMBO) and got 100% of base value.)
Other changes irrelevant to the judgement
3. The base values are presented with two decimal places.
(cf. Until 2005/2006 : one decimal place)
4. The mark for loss of rotation in jumps ("<") are shown in the protocol.
1. The definition of a jump sequence should be modified as follows: "A jump sequence may consist of any number of jumps of any number of revolutions that may be linked by non-listed jumps and/or hops immediately following each other while maintaining the jump rhythm (knee); there can be no turns/steps*, crossovers or stroking during the sequence."
* Turns: three turns, twizzles, brackets, loops, counters, rockers.
Steps: running steps, toe steps, chasses, mohawks, choctaws, curves with change of edge, cross-rolls.
2. The base value and the GOE factor of double axel
1) Base value : 3.3 → 3.5
2) Negative GOE factor : 0.7 → 0.8
3. A Double Axel can not be included more than three times in total in a Single’s Free Program (as a Solo Jump or a part of Combination/Sequence).
4. In obvious cases of starting from the wrong edge the Technical Panel will indicate this error to the Judges who must reduce their GOE accordingly. (Mark "e" in the protocol)
5. In Short Program there are no requirements on the pattern of the Spiral Sequence.
6. Additional feature for Levels in Spins : At least 8 revolutions without any changes in position/variation, foot and edge (camel, sit, layback, difficult variation of upright)
1. Increasing in the base values and GOE factors for triple axel(3A) and quadruple jumps :
1) Base value of 3A : 7.5 → 8.2
2) Negative GOE factor : 3A (1.4) / quadruple jumps (1.6)
2. Increasing in the base values of Step sequence level 3/4
3. Integration of feature for Levels in Spins
4. Short Program Junior Men: allow a double or a triple Axel Paulsen as a solo jump.
5. Have one element less in a Well Balanced Free Program of all the categories with the following result:
1) Senior both Men and Ladies: maximum of three (3) spins, one of which must be a spin combination, one a flying spin and one a spin with only one position;
2) Junior Men: maximum of one (1) step sequence;
3) Junior Ladies: maximum of one (1) step sequence and no any Spiral Sequence;
6. Additional feature for levels in spiral sequence : Holding spiral position (without any interruption) for 6 or more seconds
7. Subdivision in evaluating the Flip and Lutz jumps
1) The Technical Panel will use the sign "e" (edge) for severe cases of wrong take-off edge (long wrong edge, no correct edge at all etc.); in these cases GOE of the Judges must be reduced by -1 to -3 and must be negative.
2) The Technical Panel will use the sign "!" (attention) in cases when a wrong take-off edge is short or not so obvious; in these cases the decision on the GOE is at the discretion of every Judge.
Reduced number of Judges in ISU Championships : 13 → 9
1. Features for Levels in Spins
1) Clear change of edge in the same basic position (for each spin counts only once)
(cf. In 2008/2009 season : Both edges in one basic position)
2.1. Change of Guidelines in establishing GOE for errors
"downgraded jumps" : -1 ~ -3 (Final GOE must be in the minuses)
→ "under rotated jumps" : -1 ~ -3 (Final GOE is not restricted)
(= Deletion of double penalties for under-rotated jumps)
3. Changes of the explanation for wrong edges
1) "e" : wrong edge
2) "!" : unclear edge
Reduced number of Judges in the Olympic Winter Games: 13 → 9
Technical Handbook for 2010/2011 season
(from Feverskating. including all original contents)
1. Subdivision of loss of rotation
1) A Jump/Throw will be considered as "Under-rotated" if it has "missing rotation of more than 1/4, but less than 1/2 revolutions".
: "<" mark. Reduced base value - 70% of the base value of the intended jump
2) A Jump/Throw will be considered as "Downgraded" if it has "missing rotation of 1/2 revolutions or more".
: "<<" mark. Base value for element of one rotation less (i.e. 2T for 3T<<)
3) triple axel and quadruple jumps : 1.0 (1.2 for 4A)
3. Unification of wrong edge in Lutz/Flip jumps : "e" (Each Judge will then decide himself/herself on the severity of the error (major or minor error) and the corresponding GOE reduction.)
4. In Jump Combinations/Sequences Half-loop (or “Euler”) (landing backwards) will be a listed jump. Consequently the units “half-loop + Salchow/Flip” and “any jump landed backwards outside + halfloop + Salchow/Flip” will become jump combinations of 2 or 3 jumps correspondingly. Half-loop will have the Base Value and the GOE values of the single loop jump and will be identified by the Technical Panel to the Judges and in the Protocols as “1Lo”.
(i.e. First Jump + 1Lo + S/F : counted as "3 jumps combination" not a sequence. 100% of base value.)
5. Ladies, Senior can have either a double or a triple Axel.
6. Men, Senior: it is possible to execute two different quadruple jumps - one in combination and one as solo jump.
7. A Double Axel cannot be included more than two (2) times in total in a Single’s Free Program (as a Solo Jump or a part of Combination/Sequence).
II. Step/Spiral sequence
1. Additional features for Levels in Step sequence
1) At least half a pattern on one foot only
2) Combination of difficult turns (rockers, counters, brackets, twizzles) quickly executed in both directions (at least twice within the sequence)
2. Men, Seniors and Juniors: only one step sequence (straight line, circular or serpentine) is included.
2.1. For Senior Men the second (in the order of execution) step sequence will always be awarded a fixed Base value, called a choreographic step sequence and evaluated by Judges in GOE only.
3. Ladies, Seniors and Juniors
1) Short program: no spiral sequence is included. Execution of Spirals will be rewarded in "Transitions".
2) Free skating: The spiral sequence will always be awarded a fixed Base Value, called a choreographic spiral sequence and evaluated by Judges in GOE only. In this sequence there must be at least two (2) spiral positions not less than three (3) seconds long each or only one (1) spiral position not less than six (6) seconds long.
1. There are 13 categories of difficult variations:
For CAMEL POSITION there are 3 categories based on direction of the belly button:
- (CF) Camel Forward: with belly button facing forward
- (CS) Camel Sideways: with belly button facing sideways
- (CU) Camel Upward: with belly button facing upward
For SIT POSITION there are 3 categories based on position of free leg:
- (SF) Sit Forward: with leg forward
- (SS) Sit Sideways: with leg sideways
- (SB) Sit Behind : with the leg behind
For UPRIGHT POSITION there are 3 categories based on position of torso:
- (UF) Upright Forward: with torso leaning forward
- (US) Upright Straight or Sideways: with torso straight up or sideways
- (UB) Upright Biellmann: in Biellmann position
For LAYBACK POSITION there is 1 category
- (UL) Upright Layback
For INTERMEDIATE POSITION there is 1 category (IP)
For INCREASE OF SPEED there is 1 category (IS)
For JUMP IN A SPIN there is 1 category (JS)
2. Overall changes in features for Levels
1) A difficult variation in a basic or (for spin combinations only) in an intermediate position
2) Another difficult variation in a basic position which must be significantly different from the first one and:
- spin in one position with change of foot . on different foot than the first one
- spin combination without change of foot . in different position than the first one
- spin combination with change of foot . on different foot and in different position than the first one
3) Change of foot executed by jump
4) Backward entrance/Difficult variation of flying entrance/Landing on the same foot as take-off or changing foot on landing in a Flying Sit Spin
5) Clear change of edge in sit (only from backward inside to forward outside) or camel
6) All 3 basic positions on both feet
7) Both directions immediately following each other in sit or camel spin
8) At least 8 rev. without changes in pos./variation, foot or edge (camel, sit, layback, difficult upright), counts twice if repeated on another foot
Additional features for the Layback spin:
9) One change of position backwards-sideways or reverse, at least 3 rev. in each position (counts also if the Layback spin is a part of any other spin)
10) Biellmann position after layback spin (SP . after 8 revolutions in layback spin)
Backward entry, change of edge and any type of difficult spin variation count as features that can increase the Level only once per program (in the first spin they are attempted);
The following requirements are mandatory for Levels 2 . 4 both in Short Program and Free Skating:
a) for Spin Combinations with change of foot all 3 basic positions;
b) for Spins with change of foot at least one basic position on each foot.
In any spin with change of foot the maximum number of features attained on one foot is two (2).
1. Base value of 2T/2S : 1.4 → 1.3
2. Base value of Step sequence level 2 :2.3 → 2.6
3. Features for Levels in Step sequence
1) Two different combinations of 3 difficult turns (rockers, counters, brackets, twizzles, loops) quickly executed within the sequence
2) Use of upper body movements for at least 1/2 of the pattern
4. Features for Levels in Spins
1) Clear change of edge in sit (only from backward inside to forward outside), camel, Layback and Biellmann position
2) At least 8 rev. without changes in pos./variation, foot or edge (camel, difficult sit, layback, difficult upright), counts once per spin
1. Lifts, twist lifts and death spirals (pairs), spins and steps (singles and pairs) are divided depending on their difficulty in five (5) Levels according to the number of features achieved: Basic Level (B) - in case of no features, Level 1 - in case of one feature, Level 2 - in case of two features, Level 3 - in case of three features and Level 4 - in case of four or more features.
2. Step sequences no longer have a required pattern.
3. Features for Levels in Step sequence
- At least half a pattern on one foot only : deleted
4. A Choreographic Sequence consist of any kind of movements like steps, turns, spirals, arabesques, spread eagles, Ina Bauers, hydroblading, transitional (unlisted) jumps, spinning movements etc. A Choreographic Sequence for Ladies must include at least one spiral (not a kick) of any length. A Choreographic Sequence for Pairs must include at least one spiral (not a kick) of any length by each partner. The Sequence commences with the first move and is concluded with the last move of the skater. The pattern is not restricted, but the Sequence must fully utilize the ice surface. If this requirement is not fulfilled, the Sequence will have no value. The Choreographic Sequence has to be performed later then the step sequence. The Choreographic Sequence has a base value and will be evaluated by the judges in GOE only.
5. Features for Levels in Spins
1) All features for levels in Spins except difficult variations count only once per program.
2) Clear increase of speed in camel, sit, layback or Biellmann position
3) Spin categories
- "Intermediate position" → "Non-basic position"
- IS, JS → separate features (not a difficult variations)
Other changes irrelevant to the judgement
6. In the Short Program of Single Skating the base values (but not the GOE’s) for all jump elements started in the second half of the program will be multiplied by a special factor 1.1 in order to give credit for even distribution of difficulties in the program. Each factored base value for all jump elements performed in the second half of the Short Program will be rounded to two decimal places. The second half commences in the middle of the maximum time which means 1 min. 25 sec.
7. A deduction - 1.0 will be applied by the Referee if a part of the costume/decoration falls on the ice.
8. Starting from the season 2014-2015 vocal music with lyrics will be allowed.
1. Compulsory feature for Step sequence level 1 : Minimum variety
- Minimum variety must include at least 5 turns & 2 steps, none of the types can be counted more than twice.
2. Guidelines in establishing GOE for errors
UNCLEAR EDGE TAKE-OFF F/Lz (no sign) -1
1. Lesser base values
1) Full rotation: signs < and << indicate an error. The base value of the jump with a sign < is approximately 70% of the original base value. The jump with a sign << is evaluated with SOV for the same jump one revolution less.
2) Take-off edge in F/Lz: signs “e” and “!” indicate an error. The base value of the jump with a sign “e” is approximately 70% of the original base value. If both signs < and “e” are applied for the same jump, the base value is approximately 50% of the original base value. In cases of serious errors (sign “e”) the base value of the jump and the GOE are reduced, final GOE is negative. In cases of smaller errors (sign “!”) the original base value stays, the GOE is reduced, however the final GOE is not restricted.
3. Jumps with less than 1,5 revs in both Short and Free programs of Seniors/Juniors will have no value. deleted in Communication No. 1884
4. In Short Program jumps which do not satisfy the requirements (wrong number of revolutions) will have no value; if a combination of two double jumps is not allowed (senior men and ladies, junior men), jump with a lesser value will not be counted.
II. Spins, Step sequence
1. Lesser base values
1) For flying spins of both Short Program and Free Skating:
a) a clear visible jump;
b) basic landing position reached within the first 2 revs;
c) held for 2 revs after the landing.
2) For any spin with change of foot: at least one basic position on each foot.
3) For spin combinations with change of foot: all 3 basic positions.
Sign “s” indicates that one of these 5 requirements was not fulfilled, the base value of a spin with a sign “s” is approximately 70% of the original base value.
Sign “ss” indicates that two or more of the 5 requirements were not fulfilled, the base value of a spin with a sign ”ss” is approximately 50% of the original base value.
2. Features for Levels in Spins
1) Regular backward entry is no longer considered a difficult entry.
2) All 3 basic positions on the booth feet → on the second foot
3. Features for Levels in Step sequence
"Use of body movements for at least 1/3 of the pattern" - the visible use for a combined total of at least 1/3 of the pattern of the step sequence any movements of the arms, head, torso, hips and legs that have an effect on the balance of the main body core.
(* from "upper body")
4. Minus GOE guideline for step sequence : Incorrect pattern (too small) - deleted
III. Confirmed after 55th ISU Congress
1. Duration of Free Skating/Free Dance REJECTED 1) Senior : Men, Ladies, Pairs, Ice Dance - 4 minutes 2) Juinor : Men, Ladies, Pairs, Ice Dance - 3 1/2 minute 2. Reduced number of Jump elements in Senior/Junior Men : 8 → 7 3. PCS Factors 1) Men : SP 1.0 / FS 2.0 → 1.8 2) Ladies, Pair : SP 0.8 → 1.0 / FS 1.6 → 1.8
4. Any double jump (including double Axel) cannot be included more than twice in total in a Single’s Free Program (as a Solo Jump or a part of Combination / Sequence).
5. A Choreographic Sequence consists of any kind of movements like steps, turns (except twizzles), spirals, arabesques, spread eagles, Ina Bauers, hydroblading, any jumps with maximum of 2 revolutions, spins, small lifts etc. Listed elements included in the Choreographic Sequence will not be called and will not occupy a box. The pattern is not restricted, but the sequence must be clearly visible.
6. The Technical Panel identifies the Choreographic Sequence which commences with the first skating movement and is concluded with the preparation to the next element (if the Choreographic Sequence is not the last element of the program). It can be performed before or after the Step Sequence.
7. [Rule 548, paragraph 3] There will be no draw for the order of skating in each group, competitors will skate in reverse order to their places in the preceding segment of the competition, that is, with the best placed Competitor skating last.
The order of skating between tied Competitors shall be determined by a separate draw. REJECTED
1. Signs V1 and V2 are not shown to the Judges.
Jumps with less than 1,5 revs in both Short and Free programs of Seniors/Juniors will have no value. DELETED